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Introduction
Earlier Geologic Maps of Taiwan
Geographic Setting
General Geology And Geologic Provinces Of Taiwan
Explanation Of Legend And Representation Of Geologic Data
Eastern Central Range
Western Central Range Backbone Ridges
Western Foothills
Eastern Coastal Range
Geology Of The Hengchun Peninsula
Major Geologic Features Of Taiwan
Plate Tectonic Setting
References


:::Introduction
Although several geologic maps of Taiwan had been published in earlier years by the Japanese-geologists, the most recent one was a 1:300,000 map printed in 1953 by the Chinese geologist, L.S. Chang, not long after the end of World War II. Since the publication of the 1953 map, much more systematic geologic study has been the scenes of sky done in most areas of this island. Great advances have been made in geologic mapping throughout the province of Taiwan and a large number of detailed regional maps have been compiled. As a result, many of the earlier stratigraphic classifications and structural interpretations have been modified, and these modifications have improved our knowledge of the geology of Taiwan substantially. Consequently the compilation of a new geologic map of Taiwan incorporating the results of geologic mapping during the last 20 years is long overdue.
The preparation of the new geologic map of Taiwan is a project initiated by the Department of Mines of the Ministry of Economic Affairs in 1973. Representatives from The Geological Survey of Taiwan, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Mining Research and Service Organization, and other research institutions and universities met to discuss the proposed new map. It was decided that the new geologic map of Taiwan should be compiled and published on a 1:250,000 topographic base. To facilitate this work, a geologic map committee the scene of stone was established under the auspices of the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The committee was composed of six members: Biq Chingchang and S.F. Tsan of the Geological Survey of Taiwan, C.Y. Meng and Stanley S.L. Chang of the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, and C.T. Chung of the Mining Research and Service Organization, with C.S. Ho designated as the chief compiler. At the several meetings of the committee, the means and technical standards to be used for the compilation of the map were discussed and agreed upon. Final specifications for the representation of geologic data on the map were adopted by the committee members. Work on the geologic map was begun by the chief compiler in August 1973, and completed and published in October, 1974. Editing was constantly guided by the members of the geologic map committee during periodic meetings. Printed copies of the map were released in February, 1975, and an explanatory text was published in December, 1975.
The new map has been compiled from data and information available up to the early part of 1974, mainly from the published geologic maps and other data of the Geological Survey of Taiwan together with data supplied by other agencies and institutions. The Chinese Petroleum Corporation supplied geologic maps and other materials of the potential oil-bearing areas in western Taiwan in addition to selected data produced during current exploration. The Mining Research and Service Organization supplied data on the submetamorphic belt in the northwestern part of the Central Range. The 1:250,000 base map was supplied by the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, and was prepared by the Chinese Society of Survey Engineering based on the data of China Map Service CCSF. Drafting was done mostly at the Taichung office of the Geological Survey of Taiwan under the direction of C.H. Wu who, along with C.S. Ho, also supervised the color printing. The map was printed by the Chinese Society of Survey Engineering, whose full cooperation on this project is gratefully acknowledged.
the scene of river Collaboration of all agencies concerned and of interested individuals was excellent and much unpublished information useful to the compilation of this map was generously made available. The chief compiler especially wishes to express his sincere appreciation for the assistance and cooperation received from all the members of the geologic map committee. He also wishes to acknowledge the whole-hearted support of Patzen Wu and S.T. Lu, Director and Deputy Director of the Department of Mines of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, at all times during the compilation of this map. He is grateful to F.Y. Lin of the same Department, who acted as liaison officer for the whole project and offered valuable help to the work. He would like to mention particularly the able assistance of C.H. Wu who was responsible largely for the cartography. The Mining Research and Service Organization generously provided office space and other facilities for the compilation and preparation of the map and this report. Thanks are due T.T. Fung, President of the Mining Research and Service Organization, for his continuing support and help.
Fourteen years have passed since the publication of the 1974 geologic map of Taiwan. During this period, study and regional mapping of the geology of Taiwan have progressed significantly, and a great body of newly published data can be used to supplement and revise the 1974 map in a number of critical areas. This is especially true with regard to the western flank of the Central Range (Hsuehshan Range), where knowledge of stratigraphy and structure has been greatly improved and updated. Extensive geologic mapping has also been completed on the Hengchun Peninsula at the southern tip of the Taiwan island. The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan is much better understood as a result of advances in theory and interpretative studies of the structure, sedimentology, and paleontology. Petrographic studies and field investigations of the metamorphic basement on the eastern flank of the Central Range have also been carried out by both Chinese and foreign geologists. This work has included detailed analyses of the metamorphic geology, rock chemistry, mineral chemistry, and radiometric ages of the rocks in this oldest geologic belt of Taiwan. Based on recent biostratigraphic research and fossil zonation studies, the ages of some major Tertiary formations in the western foothills have been revised. There is a clear need for all these significant new data to be incorporated into the general geologic map of Taiwan. The time is thus appropriate for revision of the 1974 geologic map to enhance its utility.
the scene of ocean The areas for which pertinent geologic data and information are still lacking are the eastern and the southern parts of the Central Range. These terrains are characterized by precipitous mountains, dense vegetation and difficult accessibility. Only scattered geological reconnaissance trips have been made in most parts of these areas. Substantial revision of the geologic data in those remote areas must be deferred until more extensive field study in the Central Range is made possible by construction of the proposed cross-island highways in several critical areas.
The 1974 geologic map of Taiwan was published in two scales: 1:250,000 and 1:500,000. Thus far only the 1:500,000 geologic map of Taiwan has been revised; the 1:250,000 geologic map of Taiwan will be revised at a later date when more data are available. In this most recent compilation, the writer was again assigned to be chief editor of the revised map, but no formal geologic map committee was organized. Instead, editorial meetings were held with a number of experienced geologists who had taken active part in the regional geologic mapping in various parts of Taiwan during the past ten years or so. This group of geologists met together several times during 1985 and 1986 to exchange ideas and discuss all essential problems related to the compilation of this map.
Among the geologists who constantly attended the editorial meetings, the writer is particularly thankful to Chao-Msia Chen, Hsien-Neng Hu, Chien-Shui Huang, Chao-Chung Lin and Ming-Kuan Tu of the Central Geological Survey and C.S. Lee (presently chairman of the Department of Earth Sciences of the Taiwan Normal University) and P.T. Chang of the Energy and Mining Research/Service Organization, ITRI. Their constructive comments and suggestions have been most helpful during the course of this revision. Some geologic data have also been furnished by other geologists whose names are acknowledged in the text. Acknowledgement is due to Chia-Yu Lu for providing the map showing the distribution of gneissic bodies in northeastern Taiwan. Special thanks are due Neil Lundberg of the Princeton University for his critical review of the English version of this text. The writer acknowledges with pleasure the assistance of Daw-Long Isaac Jeng, Shyh-Shyan Hsu, Ruey-Chang Jeng, and W. J. Lo in preparation of the manuscript of this second edition. Ms. Huey-Fen Chen of the Central Geological Survey helped largely in proofreading. Cartography of the map was efficiently undertaken by F.S. Lu and H.J. Tsai of the Central Geological Survey. The writer is much indebted to the Central Geological Survey and the Energy and Mining Research/Service Organization, ITRI for their continuous support and encouragement and providing all the necessary facilities for this revision.
Editing of the second edition of the 1:500,000 geologic map and of the explanatory text was begun in 1984 with the assessment and screening of all relevant data. Compilation of the map and revision of the text were completed in 1986, and both the revised map and the revised Chinese text were published in November, 1986.
In this edition, colored photographs illustrating the significant and interesting geological features of Taiwan replace black and white pictures in the first edition. The writer is most grateful to Hao-Tsu Chu, Christopher C.K. Fong, Hui-Cheng Chang, Kai-Shuan Shea, Chun-Sun Lee and Shin Wang for the photographs they supplied from their collections. The writer is especially indebted to Christopher Fong and Kai-Shuan Shea of the Central Geological Survey who went to the field to take a number of the colorful and meaningful photographs specifically for this report. The SLAR image of Taiwan printed on the first page was graciously supplied by W.T. Cheng of the Energy and Mining Research/Service Organization, ITRI.
Most chapters in the second edition of this text have been revised, expanded and updated in view of the new information and ideas that have been put forth over the past 14 years. The organization of the text has also been changed from that of the first edition. Instead of discussing the geology of the entire island of Taiwan by separate topical chapters pertaining to stratigraphy, structure, volcanic activity, tectonism and others, emphasis in this new edition has been placed on individual geologic provinces. Thus the island of Taiwan is first divided into a number of geologic provinces or tectonostratigraphic belts, such as the Central Range, the Coastal Range and others. Then the various topics of stratigraphy, structure and others in each geologic province are discussed and treated regionally. The writer hopes that, in this way, the reader may benefit by gaining a thorough understanding of the geologic development of each important geologic province of Taiwan and the relationships between them. This revision was undertaken in an effort to make this text more interesting and useful, so that the reader may appreciate more fully the complete picture of the geology of Taiwan.
The chapter on "General geology and geologic provinces of Taiwan" serves as an overview as well as an introduction to the general geology of Taiwan. It may be useful to those readers who are unable to read the entire text but wish an encapsulated summary of the general geologic history and development of Taiwan.

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