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Fundamental and Environmental Geology
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Geological Hazard
Assigned Geological Investigation Project
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:::Geological Hazard


Geological hazard investigation is an aspect forming a particularly sensitive line of research in recent years because it aims to study and identify all probabilities of geological hazards. In 2009 the CGS concentrated its efforts more particularly on developing monitoring, and investigation of active faults, landslides and debris flow.
A. Active Fault Observation and Research on Earthquake Potential, second phase
  This is a four-year project in the second phase (2009 to 2012). This project is a multi-disciplinal project which integrates studies of crustal strain, geochemistry and groundwater hydrology. The adopted methods include observation by borehole strainmeters, continuous-recording GPS stations, geochemical sensors and piezometers, respectively. The results are expected to contribute to the evaluation of earthquake potential in Taiwan.
- Geochemical Investigation and Research on Fault Activities in Taiwan (1/4): It will be helpful to better understand the mechanism and process of the fault/earthquake activity by long-term observation on gas composition and water-level at appropriate sites of fault zones. In the project of year 2009, we continuously maintain the existing stations and monitor the variation data of gas compositions and water level. And, we also setup one soil gas station at selected areas of I-Lan Plain. The station will be fully automatic and able to transfer real-time data to Taipei (NTU) for further analyses synthesis and interpretations.
- Monitoring of Active Fault and Earthquake Hazard Analysis (1/4): This study uses 50 continuous-recording GPS stations, 7 geochemical stations and 12 borehole strainmeters established by Central Geological Survey to monitor the fault activities in Taiwan. These data will be provided for further study and assessment of earthquake potential of seismogenic structures in the study area.
B. Earthquake Geology and Assessment of Surface Deformation

This project is a 4-year plan (2007-2010), focusing on the study of structural profiles of fault zones and characteristics of fault activity. We plan to complete the structural profile of 12 fault zones and obtain the slip rates of 8 faults by the end of this project. In addition to digesting and compiling the huge amount of data gathered by this project from different source reports or source data, in 2009, we revised 2 reports of the Chaochou and Fongshan faults located in southern Taiwan. These reports are available on the CGS website to provide new data to the public. We also finished compiling the data of 4 faults in southern Taiwan and 8 faults in eastern Taiwan into CGS special issues. Recently, we progresses in the investigation of structural profiles or long-term slip rates of the Hsinchu, Hukou, Luyeh and Rueyshui faults. We also advanced the investigation of the Shanchiao fault by field survey and drilling. The primary results are addressed here. We constructed 57 continuous GPS stations to observe the behaviors of the surface deformation across the active faults zones in Taiwan.

C. Geological Hazard Assessment and Monitoring in Mountain Area(3/4)
  This project plans to investigate and produce an environmental geological database based on hazard prevention from 2007 to 2010. All the investigated data will be integrated to provide web access and publication to support land use planning and sustainable development of environment. The sub-projects and tasks are as follows:
- Geological Hazards Mapping in Mountainous Areas: In northern mountain areas of Taiwan, including 67 high mountain villages with 2,110 km2, which cover 12 terrain map sheets in a scale of 1/25,000.
- Landslide Susceptibility Zonation on Slopeland of Urban Areas: This sub-project focuses on urban areas of North Taiwan in 2009. An event-based landslide catalogue coupled with field verification was completed and a landslide susceptibility analysis was performed based on slope units.
- Simulation and Monitoring in Areas Susceptible to Landslide Hazard: In 2009, this sub-project focused at the northern slope of DanFeng Mountain in Taipei city to implement geological surveys, landslide investigation, field instrument monitoring, numerical simulation and risk assessment.
- Ground Subsidence Hazard Assessment Caused by Abandoned Tunnels: to establish a model of ground subsidence and evaluate the potential of ground subsidence hazard using GIS 3D analysis, multiple subsidence trough, and geo-spatial data of subsurface tunnels, etc.
- The Preliminary Studies on Debris flow Zonation: It aims to delimit the geological hazardous areas with debris flow by the geological method. In 2009, 172 sites studied with regard to geological hazardous zonation in PuLi Basin, Nantou County.
D. The Investigation and Monitoring of Specific Geohazards in Metropolitan Taipei, second phase
  The second phase of the project of the Investigation and Monitoring of Specific Geohazards in Metropolitan Taipei started from 2008. Four main tasks are included in this phase:
- Geological mapping of the peripheral areas of the Tatun Volcanic Group and the long-term monitoring of variations of volcanic precursors, including spring chemistry, composition of the fumarolic gas, and ground temperature.
- Acquisition of LiDAR DEM and its tectonic analysis.
- The seismological survey and monitoring of Taipei Basin, Tatun Volcanic Group, I-lan Plain and Gueishandao.
- Compilation of the presently available geological and geophysical data of the northeastern marine territory of Taiwan.
Several goals of the project have been attained in 2009:
- Completion of a 1/25,000 geological map of the Chutzushan area of the Tatun Volcanic Group and construction of its volcanic sequence by combining field data and a 600 m boring core.
- Achievement of high resolution of the LiDAR DEMs covering the central section of the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan.
- Characterizing topographic lineaments and scarps, landslides, drainage basins, and river terraces by using LiDAR DEMs.
- Establishment of a broadband seismic network, including 30 ground seismographs and a newly installed borehole seismograph.
- Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data and preparation of a pilot marine geological map of the offshore North Mienhua Canyon.

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