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Fundamental and Environmental Geology
Resource Geology
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:::Resources Geology
Geological resources are vital to the development of national economy. For fulfilling its fundamental responsibility of exploring potential mineral, energy, and water resources, the CGS launched the following projects in 2017 with a focus on investigating groundwater and gas hydrate resources.
A. Investigation on Hydrogeological and Groundwater Resources (1/4)
 

Groundwater accounts for nearly one-third of the total water supply in Taiwan, yet there remains room for improvement in the management of groundwater resources. While groundwater has been over-pumped in several coastal areas, there are groundwater resources in alluvia fans that can be explored to prop up water supply. Therefore, this project has been in active progress since 2017 to assess the sustainable yield of groundwater resources in areas including Zhuoshui Alluvial Fan, Minzu Basin, Taichung Plain, Pingtung Plain and Ilan Plain.

The "Hydrogeological investigation and groundwater resources assessment plan in Taiwan" began in 2009 and will end in 2012. The main work and the Major tasks for this project include:

- Collection, examination and supplementation of data concerning rainfall, groundwater level, well geological logging, and other hydrogeological parameters.

- Field investigations on water temperature, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, non-intrusive geophysical methods, etc.

- Analysis of groundwater hydrological features and examination of the relationship between surface water and groundwater based on observed data including groundwater level, rainfall and river water level.

- Development of 3-D hydrogeological model comprising hydrogeological structures and parameters by electrical resistivity survey (ERT) and well logging data.

- Development of groundwater numerical model by integrating the results of hydrological features and 3-D hydrogeological model studies.

- Assessment of sustainable groundwater supply capacity by modelling analysis on proposed conjunctive use scenarios, constrained by groundwater management levels.

B. Investigation of Groundwater Resources in Mountainous Regions of Southern Taiwan (4/4)
  With the belief that groundwater in mountainous regions plays an important role as a potential source of water supply, the CGS initiated the project to examine and assess groundwater resources in the mountainous regions of southern Taiwan.

- To establish a groundwater monitoring system in the mountainous regions of southern Taiwan for collecting essential information concerning hydrogeology, groundwater hydrology, and groundwater quality.

- To understand the current status of mountain groundwater and its water retaining capability.

- To trace and analyze the groundwater interaction between the foothill zone and the plain areas.

- To build up a comprehensive database for mountain hydrogeology and groundwater resources.

- To evaluate mountain groundwater resources and to identify and characterize potential areas to facilitate effective management of water resources.

In this four-year (2014~2017) project, 2017 centered its study areas on the Xiuguluan River and Beinan River, aiming to accomplish the following tasks: (1). Investigating the hydraulic properties of aquifers in the study areas and to construct groundwater monitoring wells; (2). Conducting hydrogeological investigation and mapping; (3). Exploring and assessing the groundwater resources in local mountainous regions; and (4). Establishing a comprehensive hydrogeology and groundwater information database.

C. Geological investigation of mineral resource potential in the offshore area of northeastern Taiwan(2/4)
  An intensive geological investigation has been conducted since 2017 on the south half of the Southern Okinawa Trough to investigate the mineral resource potential of submarine massive sulfide deposits. As indicated by the results of geophysical investigation, the surveyed area is situated in an active rift center, bounded by E-W trending faults, where active submarine volcanoes and gas plumes are commonly observed. In the west of the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, vapor-rich fluid venting and chimney-mound structures are widely distributed over the seafloor based on the real-time seafloor images. Seawater column and cored sediment collected from the hydrothermal field show notable geochemical anomalies. Relatively high concentrations of methane, rare earth elements and Y, as well as high 3He/4He ratios have been observed in the near bottom seawater samples. Also to be noted is that the pore water of cored sediments show anomalously high concentrations of Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and 3He/4He ratios, whereas the cored sediments have relatively high concentrations of Au, Ag, As, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and Bi. Metal-sulfide minerals including pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, isocubanite, arsenopyrite, auriferous native bismuth, pyrite, stibnite and realgar have been identified from the ore specimens and sediment fragments collected from the hydrothermal field. These results suggest that the west of the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field merits exploration for its potential of hosting rich resources of noble metals.


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